Tuesday, October 28, 2014

Foundations of Excellence launch training trip report

As a member of a team of five, four from the College of Micronesia and one from the University of Maine at Fort Kent, I left Pohnpei on Monday 20 October to attend a Foundations of Excellence® training workshop at the John N. Gardner Institute in Brevard, North Carolina.

Betsy, Kioni, and Joey work on the Foundations of Excellence technology platform

The team checked into the Holiday Inn Express & Suites in Brevard on the evening of Tuesday, 21 October. As is my habit, I went for a quick run on a nearby trail up into the Pisgah National Forest.

While running and juggling I met other Brevardians out for an evening walk. Two young men clapped for me when they saw me come around a corner running and juggling. They called out, "Hey, that's good. Can you do it running backwards?" When I responded, "No," they said, "We expect more of you!" I told them I would work on my backwards running and juggling. That encounter well captured the spirit of the people I met during my brief visit. Friendly, warm, and a people who expect more of themselves - who demand more from themselves.

The sessions began in earnest on Wednesday with introductions and a background context discussion. After lunch the group learned the Foundations of Excellence® conceptual model and was introduced to a technological support platform called FoEtec. The team also worked on the first three Foundational Dimensions®, philosophy, organization, and learning.

Philosophy refers to an institution that intentionally cultivates learning environments for new students that emerge from a philosophy of two-year colleges as gateways to higher education.

The organization dimension looks at whether an institution provides a comprehensive, coordinated, and flexible approach to the new student experience through effective organizational structures and policies.

The learning dimension examines whether an institution delivers curricular and co-curricular learning experiences that engage new students in order to develop knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors consistent with the institutional mission, students' academic and career goals, and workplace expectations.

Day two began with a video overview of the Foundations of Excellence® program. The video advised that an institution should pitch a big tent. By October all data should be entered. By November the faculty surveys are ready and dimension groups without student survey components can meet, dimension groups with student survey data will have to meet late November, early December. Intersession work can begin on culling through the action plans from the dimension groups. Action plan should be in place by end of the spring for presentation to boards, senates. Involve everybody. In discussions that followed the video the team from the college noted that these timelines would have to be modified.

John sharing with the group

The team then received a briefing on the change process and the context in which that change is viewed. John noted that the institute is an advisory organization and is designed to be managed and controlled by the implementing college. Nine areas of focus provide the core of the assessment and the foundation to implementation of change. The institute places a high value on face-to-face communications in change processes, inclusivity, and open communication. The steering and dimension committees should be broadly inclusive and include faculty, staff, and students from across the spectrum of the college. Knowing that administrators come and go, the process heavily involves faculty. Faculty have the longer tenures at a college.

Betsy, Angela, John, Universe. A sense of community is also important.

Day two sessions continued with a detailed look at the Current Practices Inventory of programs, policies, practices, committees, councils, and existing assessments. Student data, academic background, retention rates, courses with the highest DFWI rates, high enrollment courses, and intervention programs are also part of the Current Practices Inventory. The building of the CPI inventory will fall heavily on the Institutional Research and Planning Office.

Day two wrapped with a technical overview of the Foundations of Excellence® technology support platform. Note that the development of First Year Experiences predates the existence of the technology platform.

Building a sense of camaraderie strengthens a team, a team learns to rely on each other in adverse conditions. A cold evening run.

Day three began with consideration of the question, "What would your institution have to do to have an excellent beginning." Note that the Foundations of Excellence® do not start with how to improve retention but rather with a focus on what can the institution do to be excellent. Faculty and staff being used differently is the key to student success. Focus on being excellent. Most efforts on improving retention exist in narrow silos and have a low probability of actually improving retention. The Foundations process asks, "Who is doing what to improve retention?" One of the underlying presumptions is that a college cannot change the students, the college can only change the environment into which the students arrive.

Day three also included a quick look at the remaining six Foundational Dimensions®.

Campus Culture: New students are made a high priority for faculty and staff.
Transitions: Appropriate student transitions are facilitated beginning with outreach and recruitment and continuing throughout the period of enrollment.
All Students: All new students are served according to their varied needs.
Diversity: New students experience ongoing exploration of diverse ideas, worldviews, and cultures as a means of enhancing their learning and participation in pluralistic communities.
Roles and Purposes: Student understanding of the various roles and purposes of higher education and those unique to two-year institutions are promoted, both for the individual and society.
Improvement: Assessment is conducted and associations are maintained with other institutions and relevant professional organizations in order to effect improvement. 
* Definitions are from the John N. Gardner Institute Foundations of Excellence® platform, all rights reserved.

Modified timelines were developed during day three. The modifications included compressing the timeline and working around calendar realities such as three holidays in early November and finals in early December. The team has timelines and a plan of action.

Wrapping up

For the final night the team moved to the Clarion Inn Airport NC674 in Asheville prior to departing North Carolina on Saturday 26 October.

Saturday, October 18, 2014

Speed of sound using sight to sound differential

Laboratory nine in SC 130 Physical Science has used a procedure that I first used in 1990 when teaching a high school physics class. Boards are clapped in synch with an echo. Timing the claps and the measuring the distance to the building has permitted relatively accurate measurements of the speed of sound.

Towel waver Marla Silbanuz, clapper Malcom Tom, 11:00 section arrangement

The day was sunny, clear, and hot. The past couple of years the sound lab has seen rainy days. Ducking between buildings, listening for echoes in the rain have been the norm. While walking down the road in the 8:00 laboratory I realized that I could demonstrate the delay between seeing an event and hearing the event. I knew that if there was enough distance between the clapper and the observer, the human eyes and ears system would detect the difference.

Human telegraph system in the 11:00 section

I walked down to the maintenance building, leaving the 8:00 section class up near the east intersection of the semi-circular drive. I instructed them to watch for the clap, starting the timer when they saw the clap and then stopping the timer when they heard the clap.

Neilie Mendioloa at her telegraphy post

I chose this arrangement as I would be well lit by the morning sun in the east. The class would be looking west to see me. I clapped and then they timed. We had no pre-arranged signals. With almost 200 meters between us, communication was not possible.

Edward Reyes, another link in the communication chain

I wound up being unable to know whether the class could time the difference. I also had no idea of the time delay they were seeing. When we did get back together and ran the numbers I found that the timed difference implied a speed well under 300 meters per second. Done well, the echo measurements can produce more accurate results. With day time temperatures of 28 to 30 Celsius the speed of sound is up around 350 meters per second on Pohnpei.

Cherish Laiuetsou tries to find a comfortable seat, four or five trees down the road

The group reported that despite the heavy equipment operating on the north side of the road, they could very clearly hear my boards clapping. That was tantalizing. That suggested that I could stretch the distance and improve the accuracy by increasing the time differential between the arrival of light and that of sound.
Gordon Loyola mans his post. Or tree in this case.

Noting that the road near the B building is higher than maintenance, and given the unusual southeasterly winds that Thursday, at 11:00 I decided to leave the clappers at the B building. I gave Marla a red towel to swing in synch with clap as I knew the distances could get too large to see the clapper clap. Malcom kept the clapping boards, the rest of the class headed west. At each tree I put one student, creating a human telegraph system. Unfortunately I ran out of students. The students would later report that I could have put them on every other tree just as effectively.

The day was stunningly clear. One can barely make out the students under the trees. Malcom is way back at the visual end of the road. 

Despite the distance, the claps could be very clearly heard from maintenance, and from here I could still see Malcom clapping. The photograph does not do justice to the actual visibility of Malcom and the boards. I did send word back up the human telegraph that Malcom needed to step out into the sun to improve visibility. Under the shade of the tree I could not see the boards.

Shari Crystal Pablo was carrying my clipboard. We pushed westward out beyond the end of the human telegraph. We had a signal pre-arranged that I would raise my hand when I was ready to time. Malcom fortunately had acute enough vision to see my hand.

Security Chief Warren Ching captured me raising my hand signaling for a clap - probably needed a towel flag of my own. In my right hand is the stopwatch. Shari Crystal and I were both impressed with the sight to sound delay at this point - 327 meters away. I was more amazed at how clearly I could still hear the clap. I learned that noise happening between the clapper and the timer does not matter provided the area around the timer is quiet. The timer needs quiet, but construction equipment can be running at around 100 meter mark and not interfere with listening for the clap out at 327 meters.

Shari Crystal at 436 meters west of the clapper records the time data. 1.34, 1.27, and 1.21 seconds out here.

At 436 meters I could not longer see Malcom clearly. Marla had presciently stepped down into the road itself with her red towel and her towel flaggings became the only way I could start my timer accurately. The delay was now most impressive. The clapping could still be heard, but what I could not know was that one of the boards was splitting badly. Malcom was persevering with a splintering board at some risk to his own hands.

If the issue of the board integrity could be resolved, or a louder noise made consistently, then the measurements could easily extend out another 100 meters or more.

The echo data above tops out at 0.625 seconds and 274 meters - the out and back distance to the bookstore. In some terms an out and back to the gym from the K building yields a 395 meter distance. The complication is that the bang of the boards tends to deafen the listener to the quiet echo. And for the gym the echo is no longer a single sharp sound. At 395 meters the echo is a stretched out sound, an odd "kiiiSHEK" sound that leaves one unsure whether to time the start or end of the sound. The issue may be sound rebounding off the men's residence hall and maintenance. The linear measurement, however, did not have this effect. The bang was clear and not smeared out in time. The distances that could be timed were longer than some of the longest echo distances.

time (s)08:00 echo synch sound speed (m/s)11:00 sight sound differential sound speed (m/s)

Weather permitted the long linear measurements this term, the results were quite positive. In any future run there are some adjustments that might be made. The human telegraph was valuable (no student had a cell in the 11:00 class!) and could have been spread slightly thinner. That said, more students should have wound up with Shari Crystal and I - only we experienced the full effect of the time delay.

The tree sitters should be given stop watches too. Having them attempt to time the light to sound difference would be fun and might occasionally show that the sound is really travelling. This would mean recording their distance from the clapper and maybe leaving a second person to record data at each tree.

I like being the final timer - the accuracy of the measurement really depends on an experienced hand at the final distances. Linear regressions are most affected by the smallest and largest x-axis values.

If I do this again, I should carry a second set of boards so I can clap back. This would allow the clappers to experience the delay between seeing and hearing. Maybe they could also time the differential, provide more data. That would mean my taking a flag person along with a data recorder - a second red towel waver.

Paper airplane confidence intervals

As a demonstration of a confidence interval for a sample mean capturing a population mean I had the class throw paper airplanes from the second floor balcony. Three prior terms of data provided a population mean flight distance of 614 cm as measured perpendicular to the building.

Each section threw their airplanes and then I measured the perpendicular flight distances. Measuring and picking up tasks were assisted by the students.

Throwing an aircraft.

Measuring distances.

Recording data.

Fetching airplanes.

The data was put on the board and the 95% confidence interval was calculated for each section.

Distances in cmm08m09m10all time
lower bound on the mean469275330536
upper bound on the mean940704681644
pop mean614614614590

Each section captured the population mean. The sections are all less than 30 students, so this exercise provides a vehicle for introducing the t-critical value and the TINV function in spreadsheets. Google Docs does not include the TINV function, those values were generated in LibreOffice.org Calc for this exercise. The data from this fall will lower the population mean to 590 cm in future terms.

The students watch the measurement process. 

This term an impending off-island trip caused me to accelerate the syllabus into section 10.1, confidence interval hypothesis testing. As I was going to be gone the next week, and the students would be working on worksheets that included running sample against sample, I modified my 10.1 coverage to include sample on sample confidence interval hypothesis testing. This material is not in the text. The week went exceedingly well actually. The FiboBelly exercise begun the prior Friday led to confidence intervals for the sample mean FiboBelly ratio that did not include the Fibonacci ratio of 1.618. The paper airplane confidence intervals for the sample mean did include the pre-existing population mean distance. Those two examples provided examples of when the sample data supports the population mean or fails to support the population mean. 

Sample on sample examples have, at a beginner's level, three possible outcomes. If the confidence intervals do not overlap at all, then the difference is significant. If each confidence interval overlaps the other mean, then the difference is not significant. If the confidence intervals overlap but not sufficiently to include the other mean, or only one overlaps the other mean, then the result is effectively indeterminate. Note that this really only makes sense for small samples - large samples can generate significant differences even when the effect size is small. 

Thursday, October 9, 2014

Hide and seek, meters per minute of longitude

This term for GPS hide and seek I chose an open and easy spot just west of the gym. I actually picked the location using Google Earth. Google Earth has been spot on for locations, so I took the risk. The location was N 06° 54.605, E 158° 09.355'.

Malcom and Lerina were the first group to find the location, and to find me. I had moved south into a shadier location.

 Lerina Nena and Malcom Tom.

Only a few meters north Bernis Pernes, Edward Reyes, and Neilie Mendiola were tracking my location, they were the second group to arrive at my location. Rain then moved us east to the sheltering overhang of the gym.

Laboratory seven has settled on a formula that produces a nice linear relationship while building directly on the prior day's hide and seek activity. The laboratory puts numbers to the question of how far apart is 0.001 minutes in meters? How close to Lee Ling's hiding spot will the coordinates provided put a student group?

In the above image each student has a GPS and is standing at the exact same latitude and longitude as determined by the GPS. The group was able to start at N 06° 54.564', E 158° 09.600' and walk east on the N 06° 54.564' line of latitude. That run is right next to the classrooms, very tight to the corner of the building.

 The class stands on a line of longitude. Laslyn has the surveyor's wheel.

Gordon Loyola with a GPS, Preston Mauricio behind him

In the 11:00 class I decided to try a new line, running north on a line of longitude. To avoid the solar panels, I opted to move west to N 06° 54.505', E 158° 09.541' I would have preferred a N 06° 54.500' start, but that was not an option due to the polystachion grass. The track had a drainage hole early on and 61 meters (200 feet) occurred under the covered walkway. The track had a solid ending however out at 213 meters (700 feet).

Jasmine Santos in the lead

V-Ann Nakamura pushed the surveyor's wheel

Samantha Wilson, Neilie Mendiola, Edward Reyes, V-Ann, Jasmnie, and Gordon

Lined up on a line of latitude at 152 meters (500 feet)

182 meters (600 feet) was just a couple feet over onto the road. The football field appeared solid, so I requested that the class attempt to go out to 213 meters (700 feet). That proved to be possible. Another 30 meters would have put us into mud.

Edward, Shari Crystal Pablo, and Jasmine Santos on the front line.

Both runs worked well and generated good linear relations of 1829 meters per minute and 1854 meters per minute. The second half of the laboratory was done in the A204 computer laboratory with Google Earth.

Wednesday, October 8, 2014

Island Food Community visit by the ethnobotany class

The SC/SS 115 Ethnobotany class visited the Island Food Community of Pohnpei in their temporary offices across from the Pwunso botanic garden. April presented to the class on the stark statistics - one in three adults in Micronesia are diabetic, one in two children are vitamin A deficient, salt intake is well above daily recommended levels. She noted that 37% of the adult females in Pohnpei are diabetic.

The presentation covered hidden salt in canned foods, ramen powder, and other packaged foreign foods. April noted that the best way to avoid hidden salt, sodium, in the diet is to eat fresh foods. She noted the need to make changes in the diet and in the level of physical activity.

The Island Food Community promotes making achievable, sustainable, modifications and changes in local diets. The concept is to have people commit to policies such as the addition of a local food to each meal, or at least one all local meal a week, as a starting place for families. The idea is to shift your diet. Make gradual changes.

The Island Food Community well covers the CHEEF benefits of local foods as quoted from their web site:

Food is a basic part of our culture. When we promote our island foods, we are also promoting the traditional Pohnpeian way of life and farming system. As the forces of globalization affect indigenous peoples' traditions and food availability, it is imperative that traditional knowledge on agroforestry and cultural beliefs surrounding food are preserved for future generations. Connection to the land and local ecosystems is one way to do this.

Consuming island foods provides protection against many nutritionally-related diseases including: diabetes, heart disease, certain cancers, vitamin A deficiency, and anemia.

Health problems emerged from the 1970s with the dietary shift to imported processed foods, resulting in the level of non-communicable diseases being identified as a health emergency in the region. Nutrient-rich staple food crops have been substituted by imported white rice. This present staple in the Micronesian diet has no beta-carotene (provitamin A) for protection against these preventable diseases. Many imported foods are highly processed with very poor nutritional value and contain high levels of sugar, fat and salt causing the deteriorating health of island people. See Local Island Foods & Nutritional Value for information on how island foods benefit our health.

Traditional island foods are also generally produced without the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides which have been linked to a range of health problems, including obesity, and are alarmingly ranked among the top 3 cancer risks.

Local food helps protect the environment through the reduction of waste, climate change mitigation, negligible ‘food miles’, soil benefits and biodiversity, among others.

When you grow or buy fresh local food there is no packaging that takes hundreds of years to decompose leaching toxins that harm animals, humans and the environment.

Local foods do not need to be transported large distances and kept cool using excessive amounts of energy between producer and consumer, referred to as "food miles" (or "food mileage"). By maintaining our lush food forests we also act on climate change by cleaning the air and sequestering carbon. The soil is protected by our trees from erosion and landslides and thrives in an organic environment without the widespread use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides that harm our waters, our health and our soils. By growing and eating local foods we can contribute immensely to a healthy sustainable environment locally and globally.

By purchasing local foods the money stays in the country and supports the grower’s family and the national economy. By growing local foods people are less reliant on the cash economy for survival and can obtain nutrient-rich sustenance with very little input. Surplus can also be sold or preserved, with opportunities for entrepreneurial food processing initiatives existing.

Furthermore, agricultural production for local consumption is an import substitution policy that would help the Federated States of Micronesia national economy.

Food security
Food security refers to having sufficient nutrient-rich food locally available and accessible and the resilience to the possibility of disruption or unavailability of food supply. Partial self-sufficiency in food production limits the risks if food shipments are disrupted on route.

Sunday, October 5, 2014

Thermal conductivity

After the effective failure of a thermal expansion laboratory this past summer, I returned to time versus temperature for a thermal conductivity laboratory. This laboratory used to pursue only the maximum temperature and led to a group discussion of possible chart types. This almost always led to a column chart and never led to a consideration of possible mathematical models. Shifting to time versus temperature usually yields a curve well modeled by a logistic function.

Laslyn Siden and Jessica Reyes monitor the temperature rise
The intent is not to teach the students the mathematics of the logistic function, one does not have to have to understand a volcano in order to learn what a volcano looks like and enjoy the beauty of one such as Mount Fuji.
Lodonna Osawa and V-Ann Nakamura
The covered side of the apparatus has 100 Celsius water inside, a metal cylinder is glued into the styrofoam cups near their bottom. A small amount of room temperature water is in the cup with the thermometer. While the apparatus is described in the course text, this specific variation of the laboratory is not covered in the text.

By the eleven o'clock laboratory I had a more specific set of times to record. I learned belatedly that the students did not understand how the times on the stopwatch convert to the seconds in the table. The seconds are necessary for graphing the data in a spreadsheet. The rightmost set of minute markers was part of a post hoc effort to bring the students up to speed on the relation between what they saw on their stopwatch and the recommended data table.

In the eight o'clock laboratory I could not stumble on coefficients that would mimic the data. I did finally find some that worked at eleven. A spreadsheet function that well matched the data for one group was:

Temperature = 6/(1+0.15*exp(-0.08*(time-250)))+26

Note that few of the students have taken MS 101 Algebra and Trigonometry, a course which includes exponential and logarithmic functions. The laboratory just provides a chance for students to glimpse mathematics that is presently beyond their reach. Seeing things one does not fully understand does not make the view any less worthy. In class I note that while the students might not "understand" the function, the system is obeying a mathematical model. Like the soap, rolling balls, and marbles before, the system "knows" what to do and then does that. Nature is mathematical, even if some of the mathematics is beyond one's own capacities.

A developing tropical system on Thursday morning led to low room temperatures of 25 Celsius and 23 Celsius outside in the rain.

Data to generate the chart seen above:

time (s) temp (°C) theory (°C)
0 26 26
15 26 26
30 26 26
45 26 26
60 26 26
90 26 26
120 26 26
150 26 26
180 26 26
210 28 27
240 29 30
270 31 32
300 31 32
330 32 32
360 32 32
390 32 32
420 32 32

Raw spreadsheet function: =6/(1+0.15*exp(-0.08*(A2-250)))+26

Monday, September 29, 2014

Healing plants

Healing plants presentations in SC/SS 115 Ethnobotany. The majority of the students are from the island of Pohnpei. Where a student is not from the island of Pohnpei the text below so notes.

Kevina Berngun presents the use of Microsorum scolopendria, gob, in the treatment of a dog bite in Yap proper. The leaf is added to coconut oil and applied to the bite. The leaf is the unlobed frondlets of M. scolopendria, not the lobed frondlets. Four leaves are usually used. I have never myself been certain that the single frondlet form of M. scolopendria is actually M. scolopendria.

Maylani Clarence presented the use of Scaevola taccada, remek, to prepare a tea for abdominal illnesses in women. The tea is supposed to be good for certain types of womb sickness, a tonic for cleansing the womb.

Elson Elias covers the use of Piper ponapense, konok, for staunching bleeding.

Andrea Ewarmai explains the use of the fruit of Morinda citrifolia (nen) to treat flu (maesenpiig) in the outer islands of Yap. Fruit that is still producing flowers plus three very young leaves are chewed and swallowed to treat flu.

Ronda Kephas covered the Kosraean use of Morinda citifolia (i) roots in the treatment of kohkohf - cough. The roots are boiled in water to make a tea. Drinking the tea helps alleviate the coughing.

Trickson Ladore explained the use of Premna obtusifolia, topwuk, to treat umwpwos (skin boil) using a heated, coconut oiled leaf applied to the boil.

Judy Ligohr noted the use of the bark of Hibiscus tiliaceus to treat a skin bruise (mwou). The treatment was unusual in that six inches of bark are boiled in water until the water turns brown, then the water is drunk as a tea. This is unusual as the bruise is external and treatments for external skin issues are usually also applied externally. This is an internal treatment.

Marvin Louis proved to have stage presence in his presentation on the use of Morinda citrifolia, weipwul, to treat headaches. His recommendation was to eat one fruit to treat a headached. Probing whether the fruit had to be a certain size yielded a non-specific answer of "any size." In ethnobotanical medicines the stage of development of the plant part used is almost always specified by a healer. The lack of specificity leaves open

Jennifer Panuelo spoke about the use of Annona muricata leaves (tehn sehi - soursop leaves) in the treatment of high blood pressure. The leaves are used to produce a tea which is ingested to reduce blood pressure.

Katielyne Nianugmwar from the outer islands of Yap covered the broad spectrum of ailments that fermented noni juice from Morinda citrifolia is said to treat. The fermented juice is used to treat diabetes, kidney ailments, and many other ills.

Arnold Panuelo speaks to the class about the use of young banana tree shoots to treat external bruising. Unlike the earlier treatment, in this treatment the shoot is mashed up and applied to the bruise. In the past I have heard of the fermented liquid from a banana tree trunk being used to treat burns. For an old trunk the interior is probably very oxygen deficient, so the foul smelling liquid probably includes alcohol. Banana tree trunks are also used in splints.

Ruthy Phillip brought in Clerodendrum inerme, ilau, which is used to treat fevers (karakar) associated with coughs, colds, and flus. Although the common treatment is to use the leaves in a steambath, umwlap, Ruthy's treatment was different.

Ruthy prescribed making a garland of the leaves, oiling the leaves with coconut oil, and draping the garland around neck of a baby with a fever. This was interesting in part because babies cannot safely be steambathed. Ruthy went on to note that for an adult a steambath is more appropriate, and that the leaves of the lime tree (karer) and Piper ponapense (konok) be added with the ilau leaves to the hot water. The lime leaves make sense, the addition of Piper ponapense is not something I have heard before. The addition of Premna obtusifolia, or the oahr variety of Premna obtusifolia for which P. serratifolia might be resurrected, along with Morinda citrifolia leaves is a more often heard leaf mix. Ocimum tenuiflorum (O. Sanctum) is also often heard as an umwlapw addition as well.

Shirley Ann Rudolph covered the use of the white inner core of Ischaemum polystachyum, rehpadil, grass to treat diarrhea (mehntang).

Kanio Torres spoke about the use of Clerodendrum inerme to treat what he termed "belly-button" sicknesses. After some discussion it became clear that "wini en pwuhs" while transliterating as belly-button actually referred to treating the cut umbilical cord of a newborn baby.

Virgina Sartilug from the outerilsands of Yap described how a decoction of the leaves of Terminalia catappa, assass, can be used to produce a stress relieving and muscle relaxing bath. She noted that muscle tension is referred to as metaeg tag.

Stephanie Usiel gave an animated and entertaining presentation on the use of lemon leaf (tehn karer) for kopokop (cough). The leaves are used to make a tea to treat the cough. I prefer to just squeeze the juice of the lime fruit into hot water and drink that - never any sugar as that makes a cough worse. The hot lime juice concoction is wonderful for sore throats and coughing fits.

Rockson Salihk describes the use of mwehk to treat diarrhea. Four young leaves twice a day for four days.

Joemaw Wasan speaks of the use of Morinda citrifolia, weipwul, to treat fever in a child between the age of one and seven months. Four leaves are applied, one on the head, one on the stomach, one on the back, one more in a location I did not catch. The child then sweats out the fever.