Friday, August 26, 2016

Monilophyte and lycophyte hike

Fall 2016 I opted for an altered start to the monilophyte hike. On Tuesday I had announced that class would start from the agriculture classroom. On Thursday I picked up moss with spore capsules from the east end of campus prior to class. After I drove down to the agriculture classroom, I searched for and found Nostoc in the driveway. I began in the shade of the trees across from the classroom with an introduction to the Nostoc and the moss. I also distributed the seedless vascular plants of Micronesia hand out. The handout includes names from across Micronesia, this particular post uses only the Latin and Pohnpeian names.

The day was intensely sunny. Post El Niño there was absolutely no Lycopodiella cernua to be found. Two factors may have been at play. One, there were grass signs of harvesting, probably for decorations. Two, the drought of earlier in the year may have impacted the population.

 Davallia solida, ulungen kieil.

Asplenium nidus, tehlik.

 Huperzia phlegmaria, limpar.

 Huperzia phlegmaria, limpar.

Angioteris evecta, paiwed.

Angioteris evecta, paiwed.

The class at the Angiopteris

Antrophyum recticulatum (G. Forst) Kaulf. Antrophyum ponapense H. Ito. tehlikinwel.

Antrophyum recticulatum (G. Forst) Kaulf. Antrophyum ponapense H. Ito. tehlikinwel.

Cyclosorus maemonensis, mahrek

Antrophyum recticulatum (G. Forst) Kaulf. Antrophyum ponapense H. Ito. tehlikinwel.

Jes Oneisom and Christiam Olmos

Uphill through the fern forest. Tom Gilimete on anchor

Jon Jose and Tom Gilimete

Probably Asplenium polyodon, often referred to as mahrek en leng, but perhaps also known at peipei eni, kedilinwel

This might be Asplenium laserpitiifolium. The sori appear to match what images I have seen on line.

Outbound on the uphill slog

Mary-Ann Henry on the lead out of the fern forest

Vanessa Hadley

Up top

Raw list of ferns with local names that are sometimes seen on the hike:

1. Latin: Nostoc spp.
English: cyanobacteria
Kosraen: fokon faht
Pingelapese: limw (lihmw is Pohnpeian for green algaes in general)
Mwoakillese: pwijen joau (soau is honorific for sun in high Pohnpeian)
Pohnpeian: pwisehn ketipin
Kitti: pwisehn koatipin
Kapinga: gili ' moana
Mortlockese: paniol
Northern Noumenean: num
Faichuukese: num
Woleaian: luumule
Yapese: la'law
2. Moss: Musci
Use: fragrance for coconut oil (K)
English: moss
Kosraen: lum
Pingelapese: limw
Pohnpeian: lihmw
Kitti: lihmw
Mortlockese: lum?
N. Noumenean: num
S. Noumenean: nuum
Faichuukese: nūūm
Satawalese: nwumw
Pollapese: luumw
Woleaian: luumwe
Ulithian: lluum
Yapese: ganir
3. Psilotum: Psilotum nudum
English: whisk fern
Marshallese: martok
4. Lycopodium:
Lycopodiella cernua
Use: Cockroach repellent (P) decoration (C, K, P), arthritus bath (Hawaii, Sumner, 2008)
English: christmas tree club moss
Kosraen: mah in twefuroh
Pingelapese: suhke krismas
Pohnpeian: kidienmal, kidim en mal
Unk C: wúnen kattu
N. Noumenean: unen katu
Faichuukese: ūn-en katu , unen kattu
Puluwatese: kaatu
Woleai: gashishil gaatu
Ulithian: pechalgaatuw (cat's tail)
Yapese: gama'
Fijian: lawanini
5. Fern: Dicranopteris linearis
Use: None
English: false staghorn fern
Pohnpeian: mwedil en mal
Kitti: mwoadil en mal
N. Noumenean: anecha
S. Noumenean: an-nucha
Faichuukese: anecha
Woleaian: gemarag
Ulithian: hamarag
Yapese: gana'
Fijian: qato
6. Fern: Nephrolepis spp.
Use: keep water in bucket (K); cockroach repellent; 4 fiddleheads anti-diuretic or to calm nerves (P); decoration (C)
English: sword fern
Marshallese: anmokadede
Kosraen: ka
(Kenye Nipinyuck Waguk Mongkeya, 2007)
Pingelapese: pweh
Mwoakillese: pwoa
Pohnpeian: rehdil
Kitti: roahdil
Nukuoran: luu'he
Kapinga: lo'godaha
N. Noumenean: amare
Faichuukese: ammaru
Pollapese : amaare
Puluwatese: amare
Satawalese: aemaerei
Woleaian: gemarag
Yapese: alaw' (cockroach)
Fijian: diqi waruwaru
7. Fern: Cyclosorus maemonensis
Use: Washing dishes, tinea versicolor antifungal, local toilet tissue (P), grass skirt (Y)
Kosraen: fa
Mwoakillese: pwoa
Pohnpeian: mahrek
Kitti: marek
Nukuoran: manu'a tababa
Faichuukese: moromoren uuch
Puluwatese: hifin keerh
Woleian: mwatig
Yapese: walem (skirt)
8. Fern: Microsorum scolopendria
Use: Anti-diarheal (K, P) , mwarmwar for dancers (P, W), child's skirt (W), bone medicine
English: fragrant fern or maile-scented fern
Marshallese: kino
Kitti: kidou
Kosraen: sra kwemkwem
Pingelapese: pweh, kideu
Mwoakillese: kamkam
Pohnpeian: kideu
Kitti: kideu
Kapinga: gideu
Mortlockese: amāāra, amááre
Noumenean: chiichi
Unk C: Wénnúmey, sichon
Puluwatese: rhiirhi, riiri
Pollapese: rhirhi
Satawalese: rhirhi
Ulithian: chichi
Woleaian: shishi
Yapese: gob u ley (swamp)
Yapese: gob (drier place)
Fijian: kadakada
9. Fern: Asplenium polyodon or possibly A. pellucidum (tentative)
Pohnpeian: mahrekenleng, rehdil rasaras, rehdil en naniak
Kitti: mahrekenloang
10. Fern: Davallia solida
Pohnpeian: Ulung en kieil
11. Fern: Davallia pectinata (Humata banksii (Alston)
Pohnpeian: limwediliniak, kelmahu
Puluwatese: imwediliniak
12. Psilotum: Psilotum complanatum
Woleai: tiig
Yap: tilbug, dilbug
13. Lycopodium: Huperzia phlegmaria
Use: Mwarmwar for dance (P)
English: lycopodium
Pohnpeian: limpahr, limpar
Kitti: limpar
Yapese: awol (centipede)
Fijian: sevaseva
14. Fern: Haploteris elongata (Sw.). Syn. Vittaria elongata.
Use: Used with local oil to strengthen hair (K), or with water (P, Y)
Pohnpeian: alis en kewelik, alis en Nahnsou sed (honorific for heron), mwosou
Kitti: alis en koawoalik, alis en nahnsoau sed
Mortlockese: ishish
Pollapese: olen maluk
Puluwatese: olan maluk
Yapese: rob (beard)
15. Fern: Asplenium nidus
Use: On yams (P) , leaf tips for soup (Y)
English: bird's nest fern
Marshallese: kartōp
Kosraen: muhlihklihk
Pingelapese: sehlik
Mwoakillese: kardoap
Pohnpeian: tehnlihk
Kitti: toahnlik
Nukuoran: lau gadaha
Kapinga: lo'goho
Mortlockese: chōōlik
Unk C: nnuk
N. Nomenean: nuuk
Faichuukese: nukk , nnūk
Puluwatese: rhM lkk
Pollapese: rhēlūk
Woleaian: iuliuniug
Ulithian: maching (easy to break)
Yapese: chath
Fijian: beluve
16. Fern: Sphaeropteris nigricans (Cyathea nigricans)
Use: Posts for nahs, leaves as mats (P)
English: tree fern
Kosraen: po, tukun inut
Pingelapese: kesar
Mwoakillese: kasar
Pohnpeian: katar
Kitti: katar
Nukuoran: maele
Yapese: yibung
Fijian: balaba
17.  Fern: Asplenium laserpitiifolium Lam.
Japanese: Okinawa-sida
18.  Fern: Cephalomanes atrovirens
Pohnpeian: didimwerek
19. Fern: Antrophyum callifolium Blume (indigenous) (Syn reticulatum G.Forst).
Use: Undetermined to date
20.  Angiopteris evecta
Pohnpeian: Peiwed (Poaiwed), paiued
Yapese: m'ong

Thursday, August 25, 2016

Linear Velocity of a RipStik, Students, and Rolling Balls

I opened the week on linear velocity with the introduction of a blank time versus distance graph on the board. Then I used the LRC to F2 sidewalk to roll off a 202 cm/s run over a 3000 cm course.

I shared the data and made a sketch graph at the end of class on Monday.

Wednesday I used the Monday data to distinguish between an average and instantaneous velocity. Then I had the students measure their walking speed. I placed paper strips at the LRC and had the students walk from A101 to LRC and back, a 24200 cm round trip which was timed. The students ranged from around 90 cm/s up to around 120 cm/s.

Thursday I went with the rolling ball approach, fixed distances, and the diagonal table layout. I passed out a diagonal data entry sheet at the start of class to guide the students.

The first run, the "slow" ball run, was attempted at 100 cm increments out to 1000 cm. The fiberglass tape measure has made measurements so much easier. White chalk marked 100 cm increments, blue was 200 cm, and orange was later used for 400 cm increments.

The 8:00 lab class rolled the slow ball to 1000 cm, as did the 11:00 class. The medium speed ball was rolled out to 2000 in the 8:00 section and 1000 in the 11:00 section. An unusual south wind picked up by 11:00 and made the start more difficult.

At 8:00 Kenoma and Trisden handled the bowling task, with Trisden bowling a 796 fast ball to my best of around 444 cm/s in the 11:00 section. Ray, Gayshalane, and Philbert look on in the above shot as the ball rolls down the sidewalk.

Trisden lets loose a fast ball in the 700 cm/s range. He was accurate and generated more speed than I could.

Kenoma also proved fast and accurate from the line.

Francina on tape line anchor and ball retrieval

On the fast runs with 400 cm increments out to 2400 cm, the timers could not well see the chalk marks. I realized the key would be to put people on the marks and the timers could cue off of the people. Michelle on the left, Diane, Nagsia, Beverly, and Glenn at the far end mark 400 cm increments. I was bowling. 

Vandecia took over from Michelle.

Up in the lab I demonstrated the optional use of Google Docs to build lab reports for the first time. Noting that a trend line cannot be displayed on an xy scatter graph, I built a second table.

That second table can be seen above with the orange header. Note the diagonal data arrangement. This permits three lines with differing x-values to appear on a single xy scatter graph in a spreadsheet. Above is Google Sheets.

Google Sheets now supports graphs in documents, and the graphs remain linked to the original in Sheets.

A second table is necessary in Google Sheets to report the slopes (speeds) and intercepts. Schoology as a Google Drive add on that allows direct submission of Google Docs. I am unclear exactly why I would return to Excel, and even loses some of its luster against a suite that can run on my cell phone if the need were to arise. 

The basic approach of rolling the ball past fixed distances that are increased with increasing velocity worked well enough. The issue of the first second being faster dates back in the earliest days of my taking over the course. The set-up used for a number of years can be seen in a 2008 photo sequence. The loss of speed after the first second was more pronounced when the parking lot was wet or littered with leaves and sticks. Yet moving to the slick tile of the gym porch still did not eliminate the speed drop after the first second

Although I was deeply attached to keeping the time as the independent variable and the distance as the dependent variable (hence students attempting to note the position of the ball at an assigned second), ultimately years of tinkering could not remove the pseudo-speed loss that reaction times were introducing. For some reason, measuring time to fixed distances produces a more linear relationship with no significant speed fall off after the first second. 

The lab has also forgone graphing the slope zero, speed zero ball, in favor of three moving balls, slow, medium, and fast.  The zero slope case is mentioned, but no longer graphed. 

Soaking wet in the weeds

The second day of ethnobotany class included a tour of the plants lost in the weeds and invasive species behind the FSM-China Friendship Sports Center. The sea of Ischaemum polystachyum had completely engulfed the Ixora casei variant and the Jasminum sambac. The Cymbopogon citratus was also becoming engulfed. The Colocasia escuelenta was all struggling to survive. I had taken only one knife - the area was too tight to have a class all wielding machetes.

The rain came down, and the class learned that plants happen in the rain. Some thought we might take shelter, but not ethnobotany class. No lightning, no flood, no need for shelter.

Cleaning by pulling, using raw strength, with the one on the right shouting encouragement

 Cymbopogon citratus

Merremia peltata on Senna alata with Ischaemum polystachyum

Under the Ischaemum polystachyum, Colocasia escuelenta

Soft taro

A late afternoon rainbow

A class with rainbow selfies?

Sunday, August 21, 2016

Banana patch ethnogardening

The banana patch was heavily overgrown this term. After a viewing machete safety videos in A204, the class walked down to the patch. I had preloaded the machetes in my car and pre-positioned the car at the agriculture area so the class did not have to cross campus with machetes. This took more time than I anticipated, and I had to jog back to the class to meet them on time. This approach, however, works better than any other. At the end of class the students simply put the machetes in the car, I do not have to lug a couple dozen machetes back across the campus.

Deep in Clidemia hirta

Naoya pulling Clidemia hirta

The Clidemia hirta was tall and thick

Fanning out around the overgrown garden

The instructor

Vanessa Hadley clearing bush

Jon Jose